Vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease: evidence so far
GT Chua, YC Chan, SW Cheng
Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has recently been implicated as a contributory factor in the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Methods: A review of the published literature on PAD and vitamin D was undertaken using Medline, PubMed, and Embase, and cross-referenced. All relevant published papers on the subject were reviewed.
Results: Published studies have shown that there is a significant association between vitamin D and PAD. Populations with lower vitamin D levels are more likely to develop PAD in a graded manner. Higher amputation rates are also observed among patients with PAD and lower vitamin D levels. In addition, vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. This was also observed in the mouse model where low vitamin D led to the development of atherosclerosis.
Conclusion: This study shows that vitamin D deficiency could be an independent risk factor for the development of PAD and that this risk factor is easily correctable. Further studies should look into the effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with PAD.
Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, claudication, gangrene, vitamin D deficiency, amputation, cardiovascular risk factors
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