Vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease: evidence so far
GT Chua, YC Chan, SW Cheng
Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has recently been implicated as a contributory factor in the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Methods: A review of the published literature on PAD and vitamin D was undertaken using Medline, PubMed, and Embase, and cross-referenced. All relevant published papers on the subject were reviewed.
Results: Published studies have shown that there is a significant association between vitamin D and PAD. Populations with lower vitamin D levels are more likely to develop PAD in a graded manner. Higher amputation rates are also observed among patients with PAD and lower vitamin D levels. In addition, vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. This was also observed in the mouse model where low vitamin D led to the development of atherosclerosis.
Conclusion: This study shows that vitamin D deficiency could be an independent risk factor for the development of PAD and that this risk factor is easily correctable. Further studies should look into the effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with PAD.
Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, claudication, gangrene, vitamin D deficiency, amputation, cardiovascular risk factors
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF]