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Virus–Receptor Interactions and Virus Neutralization: Insights for Oncolytic Virus Development

Authors Jayawardena N, Poirier JT, Burga LN, Bostina M

Received 10 May 2019

Accepted for publication 9 February 2020

Published 6 March 2020 Volume 2020:9 Pages 1—15

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OV.S186337

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Tommy Alain


Nadishka Jayawardena,1 John T Poirier,2 Laura N Burga,1 Mihnea Bostina1,3

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 3Otago Micro and Nano Imaging, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Correspondence: Laura N Burga; Mihnea Bostina Tel +64 2 244 5583
Email laura.burga@otago.ac.nz; mihnea.bostina@otago.ac.nz

Abstract: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are replication competent agents that selectively target cancer cells. After penetrating the tumor cell, viruses replicate and eventually trigger cell lysis, releasing the new viral progeny, which at their turn will attack and kill neighbouring cells. The ability of OVs to self-amplify within the tumor while sparing normal cells can provide several advantages including the capacity to encode and locally produce therapeutic protein payloads, and to prime the host immune system. OVs targeting of cancer cells is mediated by host factors that are differentially expressed between normal tissue and tumors, including viral receptors and internalization factors. In this review article, we will discuss the evolution of oncolytic viruses that have reached the stage of clinical trials, their mechanisms of oncolysis, cellular receptors, strategies for targeting cancers, viral neutralization and developments to bypass virus neutralization.

Keywords: oncolytic viruses, virus-receptor interaction, virus neutralization


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