Vascular endothelium as a target of beraprost sodium and fenofibrate for antiatherosclerotic therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Authors Michio Otsuki, Kayoko Goya, Soji Kasayama
Published 15 October 2005 Volume 2005:1(3) Pages 209—215
Michio Otsuki, Kayoko Goya, Soji Kasayama
Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The metabolic abnormalities caused by diabetes mellitus induce vascular endothelial dysfunction that predisposes patients with diabetes mellitus to atherosclerosis. Two mega clinical trials showed that intensive glycemic control does not have favorable effects on reducing macrovascular events although it demonstrated significant reductions in microvascular complications. It is becoming worthwhile to clarify the beneficial effects of tight controls on blood pressure, serum lipids, and postprandial hyperglycemia to prevent atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we focus on vascular endothelium as a target of the prostaglandin I2 analog beraprost sodium and the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α activator fenofibrate for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Beraprost sodium lowered circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) concentration and prevented the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients, probably through inhibiting VCAM-1 expression in vascular endothelium. Fenofibrate up-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, which may explain its effects to improve endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and to prevent the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. The approaches to target the molecules expressed in vascular endothelium will become important for preventing the atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α, berparost sodium, fenofibrate