Validation of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire
Received 22 September 2015
Accepted for publication 13 January 2016
Published 15 June 2016 Volume 2016:7 Pages 73—80
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Robert Howland
David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin Jenkinson
Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Purpose: There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ), which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines.
Methods: Questionnaire items generated from patient interviews and based on the nine chapters of the ICF were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions: motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Participants also completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EQ-5D-5L.
Results: Thus, 334 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 86.5%. Factor analysis techniques identified three Ox-PAQ domains, consisting of 23 items, accounting for 72.8% of variance. Internal reliability for the three domains was high (Cronbach's α: 0.81–0.96), as was test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation: 0.83–0.92). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ-5D-5L. Assessment of known-groups validity identified significant differences in Ox-PAQ scores among the three conditions included in the survey.
Conclusion: Results suggest that the Ox-PAQ is a valid and reliable measure of participation and activity. The measure will now be validated in a range of further conditions, and additional properties, such as responsiveness, will also be assessed in the next phase of the instrument's development.
Keywords: activity, participation, PROM, patient-reported outcome measure, questionnaire, FDA, ICF, validity, reliability
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