Use of transethosomes for enhancing the transdermal delivery of olmesartan medoxomil: in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo evaluation
Authors Albash R, Abdelbary AA, Refai H, El-Nabarawi MA
Received 2 December 2018
Accepted for publication 4 February 2019
Published 15 March 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1953—1968
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster
Rofida Albash,1 Aly A Abdelbary,2,3 Hanan Refai,1 Mohamed A El-Nabarawi2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Manufacturing, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, October 6 University, Giza, Egypt
Introduction and aim: Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) is an antihypertensive drug with low oral bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism. This study aimed to prepare transethosomes (TEs) for enhancing the transdermal delivery of OLM to avoid its oral problems.
Methods: TE formulae were prepared utilizing 51.31 full factorial design using various surfactants (SAAs) and different phospholipid-to-SAA ratios. The formulae were characterized regarding their entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), and the amount of drug released after 6 hours (Q6h). Design Expert® software was employed to select the optimum formula.
Results: The optimum formula (TE14) had an EE% of 58.50%±1.30%, PS of 222.60±2.50 nm, PDI of 0.11±0.06, ZP of -20.80±0.30 mV, and Q6h of 67.40%±0.20%. In addition, TE14 was compared to transferosomes (TFs) in terms of elasticity and was found to show higher deformability index. Further, evaluation of ex vivo permeation using both rat and shed snake skin showed higher permeability of TE14 compared to TFs and OLM suspension. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the capability of the fluoro-labeled TE14 to penetrate deep within the skin, while the histopathological study confirmed its safety. TE14 successfully maintained normal blood pressure values of rats up to 24 hours. Moreover, TE14 showed superiority in dermatokinetic study when compared with drug suspension.
Conclusion: Taken together, the obtained results confirmed the potential of employing TEs as a successful carrier for the transdermal delivery of OLM.
Keywords: olmesartan medoxomil, transethosomes, factorial design, transdermal drug delivery, dermatokinetic study, confocal laser scanning microscopy, permeation
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