Use Of Regional Anesthesia For Lower Extremity Amputation May Reduce The Need For Perioperative Vasopressors: A Propensity Score-Matched Observational Study
Received 25 April 2019
Accepted for publication 14 September 2019
Published 2 October 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 1163—1171
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Nicola Ludin
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh
Seon Ju Kim,1 Namo Kim,2,3 Eun Hwa Kim,4 Yun Ho Roh,4 Jeehyun Song,2 Kwang Hwan Park,5,* Yong Seon Choi2,3,*
1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang 10444, Korea; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea; 3Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea; 4Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Department of Biomedical Systems Informatics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea; 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Yong Seon Choi
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel +82 2 2228 2412
Fax +82 2 2228 7897
Kwang Hwan Park
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel +82 2 2228 2185
Fax +82 2 2228 7897
Purpose: Lower extremity amputation (LEA) is associated with a high risk of postoperative mortality. The effect of type of anesthesia on postoperative mortality has been studied in various surgeries. However, data for guiding the selection of optimal anesthesia for LEA are limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of anesthesia type on perioperative outcomes in patients with diabetes and/or peripheral vascular disease undergoing LEA.
Patients and methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent LEA at our center between September 2007 and August 2017, who were grouped according to use of general anesthesia (GA) or regional anesthesia (RA). Primary outcomes were 30-day and 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were postoperative morbidity, intraoperative events, postoperative intensive care unit admission, and postoperative length of stay. Propensity score-matched cohort design was used to control for potentially confounding factors, including patient demographics, comorbidities, medications, and type of surgery.
Results: Five hundred and nineteen patients (75% male, mean age 65 years) were identified to have received GA (n=227) or RA (n=292) for above-knee amputation (1.5%), below-knee amputation (16%), or more minor amputation (82.5%). Before propensity score matching, there was an association of GA with coronary artery disease (44% [GA] vs 34.5% [RA], p=0.028), peripheral arterial disease (73.1% vs 60.2%, p=0.002), and preoperative treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel (68.7% vs 55.1%, p=0.001; 63% vs 41.8%, p<0.001, respectively). Propensity score matching produced a cohort of 342 patients equally divided between GA and RA. There was no significant between-group difference in 30-day (3.5% vs 2.9%, p=0.737) or 90-day (6.4% vs 4.6%, p=0.474) mortality or postoperative morbidity. However, postoperative ICU admission (14.6% vs 7%, p=0.032), intraoperative hypotension (61.4% vs 14.6%, p<0.001), and vasopressor use (52% vs 14%, p<0.001) were more common with GA than with RA.
Conclusion: Type of anesthesia did not significantly affect mortality or morbidity after LEA. However, intraoperative hypotension, vasopressor use, and postoperative ICU admission rates were lower with RA.
Keywords: lower extremity amputation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, type of anesthesia, mortality, morbidity
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