US perspective on gluten-related diseases
Maureen M Leonard,1 Brintha Vasagar1,2
1Center for Celiac Research, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, 2Department of Family Medicine, Spartanburg Regional Healthcare System, Spartanburg, SC, USA
Abstract: The incidence of allergy and autoimmune disease in the US and other industrialized nations is increasing, and gluten-related disorders are no exception. The US has documented a profound rise in celiac disease that cannot be fully explained by improved serological techniques or better recognition by physicians. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition only recently recognized by the medical community, has become a commonly diagnosed entity. Proteins, including gluten are increasingly being identified as a source of wheat allergy. Although the gluten free diet represents a safe and effective treatment for these conditions, there is still much to be learned about the development of gluten-related disorders and the apparent increase in incidence within the US. In this article, we present a review of current knowledge on the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders within a global context, with a focus on diagnostic trends and the evaluation of potential risk factors.
Keywords: celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, wheat allergy, risk factors, review, epidemiology
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