Upregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 is associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis of gastric cancer
Authors Qing Y, Li Q, Ren T, Xia W, Peng Y, Liu GL, Luo H, Yang Y, Dai XY, Zhou S, Wang D
Received 30 September 2014
Accepted for publication 17 November 2014
Published 16 February 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 901—909
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Min Li
Yi Qing,1,* Qing Li,1,* Tao Ren,1 Wei Xia,1 Yu Peng,1 Gao-Lei Liu,2 Hao Luo,1 Yu-Xin Yang,1 Xiao-Yan Dai,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,3 Dong Wang1
1Cancer Center, 2Urological Surgery, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Introduction: Gastric cancer is a fatal malignancy with a rising incidence rate. Effective methods for early diagnosis, monitoring metastasis, and prognosis are currently unavailable for gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the association of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression with the prognosis of gastric cancer.
Methods: The expressions of PD-L1 and APE1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 107 cases of human gastric carcinoma. The correlation of PD-L1 and APE1 expression with the clinicopathologic features of gastric carcinoma was analyzed by SPSS version 19.0.
Results: The positive expression rates of PD-L1 and APE1 in gastric cancer tissues were 50.5% (54/107) and 86.9% (93/107), respectively. PD-L1 and APE1 positive expressions were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, pathological type, overall survival, and higher T stage. Furthermore, the expression of PD-L1 in highly differentiated gastric cancers was higher than that in poorly differentiated cancers (P=0.008). Moreover, the expression of APE1 and PD-L1 in gastric cancers was positively correlated (r=0.336, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the depth of invasion was a significant prognostic factor (risk ratio 19.91; P=0.000), but there was no significant relationship with PD-L1, APE1, prognosis, and other characteristics.
Conclusion: The deregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 might contribute to the development and the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Our findings suggest that high expression of PD-L1 and APE1 is a risk factor of gastric cancer and a new biomarker to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, our findings suggest that targeting the PD-L1 and APE1 signaling pathways may be a new strategy for cancer immune therapy and targeted therapy for gastric cancer, especially in patients with deep invasion and lymph node metastasis.
Keywords: gastric carcinoma, immunohistochemistry, prognostic, potential targets
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