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Unilateral macular edema with central retinal vein occlusion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

Authors Noma H, Shimizu H, Mimura T

Received 21 February 2013

Accepted for publication 2 April 2013

Published 9 May 2013 Volume 2013:7 Pages 865—867

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S44341

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Hidetaka Noma,1 Hiroshi Shimizu,1 Tatsuya Mimura2

1Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the treatment of the macular edema with this disease is extremely difficult. We report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to unilateral CRVO in a patient with SLE that responded to intravitreous injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent. A 33-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with unilateral impairment of vision. Microperimetry (MP-1) showed a cessation of foveal sensitivity. Fluorescein angiography showed CME without ischaemia of the macular region or peripheral retina (nonischemic CRVO). A diagnosis of CME and unilateral nonischemic CRVO combined with SLE was made and intravitreous anti-VEGF therapy was given. A sample of aqueous humor was harvested at the start of intravitreous injection after obtaining informed consent. Then the levels of VEGF and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were measured in the aqueous humor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, revealing that VEGF was 234 pg/mL and MCP-1 was 501 pg/mL. Two weeks later, left eye vision improved to 20/20. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed considerable amelioration of retinal swelling and CME. MP-1 showed a marked increase of foveal sensitivity. However, she had recurrence of edema 3 months later. After harvesting aqueous humor again, intravitreous injection of an anti-VEGF agent was repeated for CME. The aqueous VEGF and MCP-1 levels were 156 pg/mL and 360 pg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that inflammation was improved by intravitreous injection of bevacizumab. Intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF agents may be effective for CME due to nonischemic CRVO in SLE patients if their inflammatory factor levels are low..

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, central retinal vein occlusion, cystoid macular edema, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent, vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1

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