Types of neural guides and using nanotechnology for peripheral nerve reconstruction
Esmaeil Biazar1, MT Khorasani2, Naser Montazeri1, Khalil Pourshamsian1, Morteza Daliri3, Mostafa Rezaei T4, Mahmoud Jabarvand B5, Ahad Khoshzaban5, Saeed Heidari K4,5, Mostafa Jafarpour6, Ziba Roviemiab7
1Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon Branch, Iran; 2Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran; 3National Research Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran; 4Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon Branch, Iran; 7Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University-Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Different methods, such as conventional allograft procedures and use of biologic tubes present problems when used for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Designed scaffolds comprised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the reconstruction of damaged tissues. Utilization of absorbable and nonabsorbable synthetic and natural polymers with unique characteristics can be an appropriate solution to repair damaged nerve tissues. Polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds with properties similar to neural structures can be more effective in the reconstruction process. Better cell adhesion and migration, more guiding of axons, and structural features, such as porosity, provide a clearer role for nanofibers in the restoration of neural tissues. In this paper, basic concepts of peripheral nerve injury, types of artificial and natural guides, and methods to improve the performance of tubes, such as orientation, nanotechnology applications for nerve reconstruction, fibers and nanofibers, electrospinning methods, and their application in peripheral nerve reconstruction are reviewed.
Keywords: peripheral nerve injuries, nerve reconstruction, neural guide, nanofibers
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