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Type 2 diabetes mellitus among government employees in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Authors Ayana DA, Bachu Y, Teji Roba K, Kebede D

Received 14 February 2015

Accepted for publication 26 April 2015

Published 6 July 2015 Volume 2015:5 Pages 71—77


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Mingzhao Xing

Desalegn Admassu Ayana,1 Yadeta Dessie Bacha,2 Kedir Teji Roba,3 Dawit Ayele Kebede4

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, 2Department of Public Health, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, 4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia

Background: Lifestyle with less physical activity and higher consumption of sugar and fat has transformed obesity to an epidemic, which poses a risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. This study was aimed to assess type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated factors among government employees in Harar Eastern Ethiopia.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 714 employees working in ten government offices from May 2013 to July 2013. The WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance questionnaire was used. An overnight fasting capillary blood was analyzed for blood glucose concentration using a commercially available electronic glucose monitor (SensoCard Plus). Participants with fasting blood sugar level ≥126 mg/dL were checked with a more specific glucose oxidase method using a compact automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a P-value <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance.
Results: A total of 50 (7%) participants were found to have a fasting blood sugar level of ≥126 mg/dL after an overnight fasting. Of these, 1.5% were known diabetic cases. There was a statistically significant association between hip circumference (crude odds ratio [COR] =2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.27, 4.22), waist circumference (COR [95% CI] =1.94 [1.05, 3.58]) and type 2 diabetes. Participants who consumed fruits and vegetables for ≥3 days/week were less likely to have type 2 diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.49; 95% CI =0.27, 0.91). A ten-point increase of systolic blood pressure increases the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus by 6%, AOR (95% CI) =1.057 (1.027, 1.087).
Conclusion: Behavioral change communication on the need for healthy lifestyle, with a special emphasis on fruits and vegetables consumption and regular checkup for blood sugar level is recommended for prevention and early detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, government employees, fruits and vegetables, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference

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