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Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis

Authors Ali M, Ibrahim I, Ali H, Selim S, El-Sayed MA

Received 30 March 2016

Accepted for publication 16 June 2016

Published 22 September 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 4849—4863

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S109470

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster


Moustafa R K Ali,1 Ibrahim M Ibrahim,2,† Hala R Ali,2,3 Salah A Selim,2 Mostafa A El-Sayed1,4

1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Laser Dynamics Laboratory, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI), Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 4School of Chemistry, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

†Ibrahim M Ibrahim passed away on August 23, 2015

Abstract: Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

Keywords: gold nanorods, natural mammary tumors, plasmonic photothermal therapy, canine, feline

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