Treatment of diabetic vasculopathy: an overview
Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman2
1Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK; 2Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Cyberjaya, Malaysia
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, degenerative, and noncommunicable disease, and is associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The complications of diabetic vasculopathy are commonly grouped into microvascular and macrovascular complications. In diabetes, macrovascular complications are the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for a high incidence of vascular diseases. The aim of this review to provide an overview of current treatment modalities for diabetic vasculopathy and highlight the importance of effective control of blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure, as well as reduction of blood hypercoagulability, in lowering the macrovascular complications of diabetic vasculopathy. A literature review was conducted to retrieve the relevant information using the PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases, reports, and books. People with type 2 diabetes are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. The initiators of vasculopathy that ultimately develop into long-term diabetic complications can be avoided by a healthy lifestyle and pharmacological intervention. Clinical trials have shown that effective control of blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and blood hypercoagulability can reduce macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is responsible for premature mortality, predominantly through atherosclerotic vascular disease. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy should be used to prevent or delay development of type 2 diabetes, including adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach involving patients, health professionals, and diabetic educators should be used to combat the type 2 diabetes epidemic and its associated cardiovascular complications.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, diabetic vasculopathy, macrovasculopathy, cardiovascular disease
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