Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives
John R van Nagell Jr, John T Hoff
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USA
Abstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.
Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125
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