Therapeutic effects of lornoxicam-loaded nanomicellar formula in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis
Received 30 July 2017
Accepted for publication 29 August 2017
Published 22 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 7015—7023
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster
Hebatullah Samy Helmy,1 Ayman E El-Sahar,2 Rabab H Sayed,2 Rehab Nabil Shamma,3 Alaa Hamed Salama,4 Eman Maher Elbaz1
1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease treated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including lornoxicam (LX). Nanocarriers have been used to increase the efficacy and reduce the side effects of various drugs. The objective of the present study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of systemic administration of lornoxicam-loaded nanomicellar formula (LX-NM) with that of free LX.
Materials and methods: The LX-loaded mixed polymeric nanomicellar formula was prepared by direct equilibrium technique. Two rat models were used in the study: carrageenan-induced acute edema and Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced chronic arthritis.
Results: The inhibitory effect of LX-NM on carrageenan-induced edema was higher than free LX for the same dose (1.3 mg/kg, i.p.). LX-NM (0.325 mg/kg, i.p.) produced effects comparable to that of diclofenac, which served as a standard. In the FCA model, daily treatment with LX-NM (0.325 mg/kg, i.p.) starting on day 14 significantly reduced the percentage of edema and increased weight growth. However, the same dose of LX failed to confer any significant change. Additionally, LX-NM significantly attenuated the rise of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β, prostaglandin E2, nuclear factor-κβ, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide serum levels. In contrast, LX failed to show any significant reduction in elevated serum biomarkers except for TNF-α.
Conclusion: LX-NM is an alternative delivery system that is simply prepared at low costs. It showed a superior therapeutic efficacy against RA compared to free LX. Thus, LX-NM can be considered as a promising candidate for treatment of RA and similar inflammatory disorders.
Keywords: lornoxicam, polymeric micelles, nano-carriers, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory mediators
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