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The significance of the vitamin D metabolism in the development of periprosthetic infections after THA and TKA: a prospective matched-pair analysis of 240 patients

Authors Zajonz D, Prager F, Edel M, Möbius R, Daikos A, Fakler JKM, Josten C, Kratzsch J, Roth A

Received 16 April 2018

Accepted for publication 25 May 2018

Published 17 August 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 1429—1435


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker

Dirk Zajonz,1,2,* Florian Prager,1,* Melanie Edel,1,2 Robert Möbius,1,2 Alexandros Daikos,1 Johannes KM Fakler,1 Christoph Josten,1,2 Jürgen Kratzsch,3 Andreas Roth1,2

1Department of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2ZESBO – Zentrum zur Erforschung der Stuetz- und Bewegungsorgane, Leipzig, Germany; 3Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: The importance of the vitamin D homeostasis in infections is already known. However, its significance in periprosthetic infections (PPIs) after total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty is largely unexplored. The aim of the study is to precisely analyze the vitamin D balance in patients with PPIs after total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Here, cases with primary endoprosthesis implants and aseptic loosening are used as comparison groups.
Materials and methods: In this prospective matched-pair analysis, patients with PPI at the hip and knee joints were included in the study group (SG). The control groups (CGs) consisted of patients with primary implants (CG I) and who underwent replacement surgery due to aseptic loosening (CG II). In addition to 25 OH vitamin D3 and calcium, bone mineral and protein parameters were determined. An osteoporosis-specific questionnaire was collected.
Results: There are no significant differences in the 25 OH-vitamin D levels between the SG (17.9±8.9) and both CGs (CG I: 16.8±6.90; CG II: 19.7±7.90). However, compared with the SG, significantly higher levels of calcium (Ca) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were found in both CGs in comparison with the SG. Significantly lower values concerning the protein balance in PPI were conspicuous. Acute PPI showed a significant reduction in 25 OH vitamin D3 compared with chronic infections (8.3±5.98 vs 21.6±8.40, P=0.002). Calcium and protein balance were also significantly reduced in acute PPIs.
Conclusion: Acute PPIs of the hip and knee joints show a significantly reduced calcium and 25 OH vitamin D3 levels as well as lowered proteins (albumin and total protein) compared with chronic infections as well as primary endoprostheses and aseptic replacement operations. Substitution of vitamin D3 and calcium with simultaneous adaptation of the protein balance is recommended in all PPIs, especially in the acute PPI.

Keywords: periprosthetic infection, protein deficiency, THA, TKA, vitamin D deficiency

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