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The Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms Among Elderly People with Visual Impairment Attending an Outpatient Clinic in Ethiopia

Authors Yimer YM, Buli MB, Nenko G, Mirkena Y, Kassew T

Received 28 November 2020

Accepted for publication 27 January 2021

Published 17 February 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 63—72

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTO.S294618

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Mr Simon Berry


Yassin Mohammed Yimer,1 Mengistu Bekele Buli,2 Goshu Nenko,3 Yohannes Mirkena,3 Tilahun Kassew3

1Mental Health Unit, Eka Kotebie Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Mental Health Unit, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Tilahun Kassew
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
Tel +251918410710
Email tilahunkassew123@gmail.com

Background: Depression among older adults with visual impairment is the commonest psychiatric problem and causes a range of effects in on disability and progression of visual health outcomes that may even end in death. In Ethiopia, there are gaps in the detection of the comorbidity of mental health problems especially depressive symptoms among those older people. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and determinant factors among the elderly people with visual impairment attending the ophthalmologic outpatient clinic.
Methods: A group of 423 elderly people with visual impairment invited by systematic random sampling technique to took part in the interview for this cross-sectional study at Menelik II referral hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from January to June 2019. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to summarize the distribution of the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the associated factors. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used for reporting the result, and a p-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: The prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms among elderly people with visual impairment was 26.7% with a 95% confidence interval (22.6– 30.8). Widowhood, single and/divorced [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)= 3.17, 95% CI: 1.71, 5.91]; [AOR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.35, 5.38], respectively, poor social support [AOR=4.34, 95% CI: 1.84, 10.24], severe level [AOR=2.63, 95% CI: 1.73, 6.63] and longer duration (> 5 years) of the illness [AOR=3.15, 95% CI: 1.60, 6.19] were the factors significantly associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms.
Conclusion: The Prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms among elderly people with visual impairment in Ethiopia was high. Public health interventions targeting risky individuals with high depressive symptoms are needed to reduce depressive symptoms and to prevent disability and poor medical illnesses outcomes related to depressive symptoms.

Keywords: depressive symptoms, depression, elderly, visual impairment, Ethiopia

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