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The neurocircuitry of illicit psychostimulant addiction: acute and chronic effects in humans

Authors Taylor, Lewis, Olive F

Received 29 October 2012

Accepted for publication 17 December 2012

Published 8 February 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 29—43


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Sara B Taylor,1 Candace R Lewis,1 M Foster Olive1,2

1Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Abstract: Illicit psychostimulant addiction remains a significant problem worldwide, despite decades of research into the neural underpinnings and various treatment approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct overview of the neurocircuitry involved in drug addiction, as well as the acute and chronic effects of cocaine and amphetamines within this circuitry in humans. Investigational pharmacological treatments for illicit psychostimulant addiction are also reviewed. Our current knowledge base clearly demonstrates that illicit psychostimulants produce lasting adaptive neural and behavioral changes that contribute to the progression and maintenance of addiction. However, attempts at generating pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction have historically focused on intervening at the level of the acute effects of these drugs. The lack of approved pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction highlights the need for new treatment strategies, especially those that prevent or ameliorate the adaptive neural, cognitive, and behavioral changes caused by chronic use of this class of illicit drugs.

Keywords: substance abuse, pharmacotherapy, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, addiction, human

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