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The incidence of depression among residents of assisted living: prevalence and related risk factors

Authors Almomani FM, Bani-issa W

Received 27 July 2017

Accepted for publication 9 September 2017

Published 9 October 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1645—1653

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S147436

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker


Fidaa M Almomani,1 Wegdan Bani-issa2

1Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates


Aim: This study aims to recognize and estimate the prevalence of depression and its risk factors among residents of assisted living facilities (ALs) in Jordan.
Background: Depression is commonly experienced by residents of ALs. The condition is, however, often misunderstood as a part of normal aging and may be overlooked by health care professionals. Little is known about the extent of depression and its risk factors among AL residents in Jordan.
Subjects and methods: A national representative sample of 221 residents selected from all AL units across Jordan was recruited to the study. Data on expected risk factors for depression were collected, including sociodemographics; smoking status; number of roommates; number of family members; assessments for cognitive functioning, for lower limb functioning, for hand, shoulder, and arm impairments; and oral health status. Levels of depression among the sample respondents were also assessed.
Results: The study found that around 60% of the participants reported depressive manifestations, with 48.0% of AL residents exhibiting impaired cognitive functions, one-third (33.2%) having >50% upper limb disability, two-thirds (63.2%) being at moderate risk of falls, and 69.7% having fair to poor oral health status. Being female, and having a higher level of education, disability of the upper limbs, and impairment of cognitive functions were found to be independent risk factors for depression in participants.
Conclusion: Depression is relatively common among residents of AL units in Jordan. Health care professionals, nurses, physiotherapists, and dentists working in these facilities need to work cooperatively to identify the manifestations of depression in residents and collaboratively implement the best practice in the treatment of depression and circumvent its long-term impacts on the health of residents.

Keywords: depression, assisted living, risk factors, cognitive disabilities, physical disabilities, oral health

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