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The Effect of Sociodemographics, Physical Function, and Mood on Dementia Screening in a Multicultural Cohort

Authors Tolea MI, Chrisphonte S, Galvin JE

Received 11 April 2020

Accepted for publication 28 October 2020

Published 2 December 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 2249—2263

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S257809

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker


Magdalena I Tolea, Stephanie Chrisphonte, James E Galvin

Comprehensive Center for Brain Health, Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA

Correspondence: Magdalena I Tolea
Comprehensive Center for Brain Health, Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th Street, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Tel +1 305-243-6732
Email mit38@med.miami.edu

Purpose: To assess age, sex, race and ethnicity disparities in cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults and identify factors that contribute to these disparities.
Patients and Methods: Cognitive performance (global and domain-specific) and self-reported cognitive function were compared among Black (N=57), Hispanic (N=139), and White (N=108) older adults. The impact of socioeconomic status (SES), physical functionality, and mood indicators was assessed with a combination of hierarchical general linear models and mediation analysis.
Results: Poorer cognitive performance and higher levels of impairment were found in older adults from racial and ethnic backgrounds. The contribution of lower SES to the observed racial and ethnic disparities in objective cognitive performance was 33% in Hispanics and about 20% in Blacks, while poorer physical functionality explained over half of the differences between Black and White participants. Higher self-reported cognitive impairment in minorities was explained by lower SES and higher depressive symptoms in Hispanics but not in Blacks.
Conclusion: Performance on objective memory testing and self-reported cognition are greatly influenced by relevant biological, sociodemographic and medical variables. Dementia screening programs should be tailored to individual sociodemographic groups based on contributors that are specific to each group.

Keywords: cognitive performance, subjective cognitive function, racial and ethnic disparities in cognition, age disparities in cognition, socioeconomic status and cognition, lower extremity function, cognition

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