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The changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure

Authors Hu XL, Hu XY, Su YL, Qu MY, Dolansky MA

Received 12 May 2015

Accepted for publication 27 September 2015

Published 9 November 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 1593—1601

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S88431

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Qian Ding

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Naifeng Liu

Xiaolin Hu,1 Xiuying Hu,1 Yonglin Su,2 Moying Qu,3 Mary A Dolansky4

1Department of Nursing, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 4Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

Background: Self-care behavior is essential for achieving good outcomes among patients with heart failure. Understanding the factors associated with self-care over time is important for the provision of appropriate and targeted interventions. However, little is known regarding the changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure.
Objective: To investigate the changes and factors of self-care behaviors during the first 3 months following discharge among patients with heart failure in the People’s Republic of China.
Methods: A descriptive design with a convenience sample was utilized in this study. Patients (N=128) from two hospitals, West China Hospital and Angjin Hospital, in Chengdu, People’s Republic of China, were recruited from June 2013 to June 2014. The instruments used in the study included the following: the Social Support Rating Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale, and the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the factors related to self-care behaviors at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months following discharge.
Results: Patients’ self-care behaviors were poor and decreased significantly over time (F=4.09, P<0.05). The factors associated with self-care behaviors at baseline included the following: education level, comorbidities, and social support. The factors related to self-care behaviors at 1 and 3 months following discharge included the following: education level, comorbidities, social support, and self-efficacy. The variances in self-care behaviors attributed to these factors were 43%, 46%, and 42% at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months following discharge, respectively.
Conclusion: Additional support should be provided to patients with heart failure with low educational levels and patients with multiple comorbidities. Follow-up, continuity of care, and family caregiver integration following discharge are necessary for the said patients to improve their self-care behaviors and obtain better outcomes.

Keywords: heart failure, patients, self-care behaviors, associated factors

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