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The Association Between Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Perinatal Depression and Maternal Vitamin D Status: Findings from an Australian Cohort Study

Authors Jani R, Knight-Agarwal CR, Bloom M, Takito MY

Received 19 November 2019

Accepted for publication 7 March 2020

Published 26 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 213—219


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Everett Magann

Rati Jani,1 Catherine R Knight-Agarwal,1 Michael Bloom,2 Monica Yuri Takito3

1The University of Canberra, School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 2Northern Sydney Local Area Health District, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Physical Education and Sport, The University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence: Rati Jani
The University of Canberra, School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Tel +61 407806663
Fax +61 2 6201 5040

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the relationship between early-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), perinatal depression risk and maternal vitamin D status.
Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort study from 2013 to 2017 was undertaken involving 16,528 birth events in the Australian Capital Territory. Multivariate binary logistic regression was conducted using the forced entry method. Mediation of the association between maternal early-pregnancy BMI and perinatal depression risk by vitamin D status was also tested.
Results: Adjusted logistic regression models found that high maternal early-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased risk of developing perinatal depression (AOR 1.421; 95% CI, 1.191, 1.696) as well as increased odds of being vitamin D deficient (AOR 1.950; 95% CI; 1.735, 2.191). In comparison to women with low perinatal depression risk, women with high perinatal depression risk had increased odds of being vitamin D deficient (AOR 1.321; 95% CI, 1.105, 1.579). Maternal early-pregnancy BMI was a weak significant predictor of perinatal depression risk after including vitamin D as a mediator, consistent with partial mediation, Path C: B=0.016 (95% CI 1.003, 1.030), p= 0.02. Path C´: B=0.014 (95% CI 1.001, 1.028), p= 0.04.
Conclusion: In line with current Australian recommendations, women with high early-pregnancy BMI should be screened for both perinatal depression risk and vitamin D deficiency, with referral to relevant support services when indicated.

Keywords: overweight, obesity, pregnancy nutrition, depression

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