Targeting EGFR and uPAR on human rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma with a bispecific ligand-directed toxin
Received 23 December 2017
Accepted for publication 4 May 2018
Published 26 September 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 113—121
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Arthur Frankel
Felix Oh,1 Deborah Todhunter,1 Elizabeth Taras,1 Daniel A Vallera,1,2 Antonella Borgatti2,3
1Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Animal Cancer Care and Research (ACCR) Program, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA; 3Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA
Purpose: Human sarcomas are rare and difficult to treat cancerous tumors typically arising from soft tissue or bone. Conversely, carcinomas are the most common cancer subtype in humans and the primary cause of mortality across all cancer patients. While conventional therapeutic modalities can prolong disease-free intervals and survival in some cases, treatment of refractory or recurrent solid tumors is challenging, and tumor-related mortality remains unacceptably high. The identification of overexpressed cell surface receptors on sarcoma and carcinoma cells has provided a valuable tool to develop targeted toxins as an alternative anticancer strategy. Recent investigation of recombinant protein-linked toxins that specifically target these cancer receptors has led to the development of highly specific, cytotoxic, and deimmunized drugs that can kill cancer cells.
Methods: This study investigated a recombinant protein called epidermal growth factor bispecific angiotoxin (eBAT), which is designed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on cancer cells and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) on cancer cells and associated tumor vasculature. Both receptors are expressed by a variety of human sarcomas and carcinomas. Flow cytometry techniques were used to determine binding affinity of eBAT to cancer cells, and proliferation assays were performed to calculate tumor killing ability based on half-maximal inhibitory concentrations.
Results: eBAT demonstrated cytotoxicity against a variety of sarcoma and carcinoma cells that overexpress EGFR and uPAR in vitro and showed greater cell killing ability and binding affinity to cancer cells compared with its monospecific counterparts.
Conclusion: The results of our study are promising, and further studies will be necessary to confirm the applicability of eBAT as a supplementary therapy for a variety of sarcomas, carcinomas, and possibly other refractory malignancies that express EGFR and uPAR.
Keywords: sarcoma, carcinoma, eBAT, EGFR, uPAR
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