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Targeting Cancer Stem Cells by Oncolytic Viruses and Nano-Mediated Delivery

Authors Hosseini M, Farassati FS, Farassati F

Received 1 September 2020

Accepted for publication 7 September 2020

Published 22 September 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 9349—9350

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S279639

Checked for plagiarism Yes

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Mahsa Hosseini, Fatemeh S Farassati, Faris Farassati

Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Midwest Veterans Biomedical Research Foundation, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 64128, USA

Correspondence: Faris Farassati
Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Midwest Veterans Biomedical Research Foundation, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4801 Linwood Blvd, Kansas City, MO 64128, USA
Email [email protected]

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets for oncolytic virotherapy is a novel concept which involves direct infection of cancer stem cells resulting to their destruction and eventual destruction of the tumor.1,9 Oncolytic viruses include herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), reovirus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, etc. replicate selectively in the cancer cells resulting their destruction without damaging normal cells.1

 

 

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets for oncolytic virotherapy is a novel concept which involves direct infection of cancer stem cells resulting to their destruction and eventual destruction of the tumor.1,9 Oncolytic viruses include herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), reovirus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, etc. replicate selectively in the cancer cells resulting their destruction without damaging normal cells.1

CSCs are considered to be relatively resistant to the most of the anticancer therapies and have been correlated to the progression of tumor, initiating invasion, metastasis and rise of second-line tumors.2 The presence of cancer stem cells has been shown in different tumors, including breast, lung, pancreas, brain, colon, prostate, ovarian, melanoma and gastric cancers.3,4

The recent studies show that engineered oncolytic viruses are capable of targeting not only specific cell-surface biomarkers on CSCs, but also surrounding tumor microenvironment and anti-cancer genes.5 Surface biomarkers such as CD molecules which differentiate the CSCs from normal stem cells, proposed to be an alternative to increase CSCs specificity of oncolytic viruses infection. CD-133, a membrane protein is one of the first identified and more interesting target due to its high expression in multiple CSCs. Targeting CD-133 positive cells is one of the alternative approaches.6

Despite the antitumor activity of oncolytic viruses in preclinical and clinical trials, the success of such treatment modalities has been inhibited by its inability to immunogenicity such as surviving in the patient’s circulation, in order to target tumors at distant sites.7 To enhance the bio-activity, efficiency and specificity of oncolytic viruses, researchers have proposed nanomedicine technologies, such as encapsulating viruses in nanoliposomes.8

While current preliminary data support the rationale that encapsulating virus in liposomes strongly preserve its antitumor efficacy by liberating the virus from liposome before or after uptake by cancer cells, more advanced research are needed to investigate the efficiency of this strategy. A recent study reveals the outcome of liposomal system on reducing immunogenicity and immune clearance of oncolytic M1 virus.10

Our team and others11 have successfully encapsulated oncolytic HSV-1 proving preservation of its infectious characteristics during such procedure. By using homing devices on the external surface of the liposomal coat, targeted delivery of these viruses to tumor microvasculature and cancer stem cells seems achievable. Such strategy can significantly enhance the bioavailability and specificity of oncolytic viruses.

Disclosure

The authors report no conflicts of interest for this work.

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8. Wang Y, Huang H, Zou H, et al. Liposome encapsulation of oncolytic virus M1 to reduce immunogenicity and immune clearance in vivo. Mol Pharm. 2019;16(2):779–785. doi:10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b01046

9. Terai K, Bi D, Liu Z, et al. A novel oncolytic herpes capable of cell-specific transcriptional targeting of CD133± cancer cells induces significant tumor regression. Stem Cells. 2018;36(8):1154–1169. doi:10.1002/stem.2835

10. Wang Y, Huang H, Zou H. Liposome encapsulation of oncolytic virus m1 to reduce immunogenicity and immune clearance in vivo. Mol Pharm. 2019;16(2):779–785. doi:10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b01046

11. Burnham LA, Jaishankar D, Thompson JM, Jones KS, Shukla D, Tiwari V. Liposome-mediated herpes simplex virus uptake is glycoprotein-D receptor-independent but requires heparan sulfate. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:973.doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00973.

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