Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 8 » Issue 1

Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of antimicrobial chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles for applications in biomedical materials and consumer products

Authors Barbour ME, Maddocks SE, Wood NJ, Collins AM

Received 18 June 2013

Accepted for publication 16 July 2013

Published 19 September 2013 Volume 2013:8(1) Pages 3507—3519


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Michele E Barbour,1 Sarah E Maddocks,2 Natalie J Wood,1,3 Andrew M Collins3

1Oral Nanoscience, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 2Cardiff School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 3Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

Abstract: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is an antimicrobial agent that is efficacious against gram-negative and -positive bacteria and yeasts. Its mechanism of action is based on cell membrane disruption and, as such, it does not promote the development of bacterial resistance, which is associated with the widespread use of antibiotics. In this manuscript, we report the development of novel antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) based on a hexametaphosphate salt of CHX. These are synthesized by instantaneous reaction between equimolar aqueous solutions of CHX digluconate and sodium hexametaphosphate, under room temperature and pressure. The reaction results in a stable colloid composed of highly negatively charged NPs (−50 mV), of size 20-160 nm. The NPs adhere rapidly to specimens of glass, titanium, and an elastomeric wound dressing, in a dose-dependent manner. The functionalized materials exhibit a gradual leaching of soluble CHX over a period of at least 50 days. The NP colloid is efficacious against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both planktonic and biofilm conditions. These NPs may find application in a range of biomedical and consumer materials.

Keywords: MRSA, biomaterials, chlorhexidine, drug delivery, slow release

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other article by this author:

Functionalization of ethylene vinyl acetate with antimicrobial chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles

Wood NJ, Maddocks SE, Grady HJ, Collins AM, Barbour ME

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:4145-4152

Published Date: 27 August 2014

Readers of this article also read:

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Biomarkers for osteoarthritis: investigation, identification, and prognosis

Zhai G, Aref Eshghi E

Current Biomarker Findings 2012, 2:19-28

Published Date: 29 June 2012

Topical diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

Niklas Schuelert, Fiona A Russell, Jason J McDougall

Orthopedic Research and Reviews 2011, 3:1-8

Published Date: 6 February 2011