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Synonymous codons influencing gene expression in organisms

Authors Mitra S, Ray SK, Banerjee R

Received 4 March 2016

Accepted for publication 8 July 2016

Published 13 December 2016 Volume 2016:6 Pages 57—65

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/RRBC.S83483

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Nikolay Dokholyan

Sutanuka Mitra,1 Suvendra Kumar Ray,2 Rajat Banerjee1

1Department of Biotechnology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam, India

Abstract: Nowadays, it is beyond doubt that synonymous codons are not the same with respect to expression of a gene. In favor of this, ribosome profiling experiments in vivo and in vitro have suggested that ribosome occupancy time is not the same for different synonymous codons. Therefore, synonymous codons influence differently the speed of translation elongation, which guides further cotranslational folding kinetics of a protein. It is now realized that the position of each codon in a coding sequence is important. The effect of synonymous codons on protein structure is an exciting field of research nowadays. This review discusses the recent developments in this field.

Keywords: codon usage bias, synonymous codons, ribosome profiling, cotranslational protein folding, protein structure

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