Surfactin-Loaded ĸ-Carrageenan Oligosaccharides Entangled Cellulose Nanofibers as a Versatile Vehicle Against Periodontal Pathogens
Received 13 November 2019
Accepted for publication 9 March 2020
Published 9 June 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 4021—4047
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Athira Johnson,1 Jia-Ling He,1 Fanbin Kong,2 Yi-Cheng Huang,1 Sabu Thomas,3 Hong-Ting Victor Lin,1 Zwe-Ling Kong1
1Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan; 2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, GA 30602, U.S.A; 3School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560, India
Correspondence: Zwe-Ling Kong
Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Pei-Ning Road, Keelung City 20224, Taiwan, People’s Republic of China
Tel + 886-2-2462-2192
Fax + 886-2-2463-4203
Purpose: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with microbial accumulation. The purpose of this study was to reuse the agricultural waste to produce cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and further modification of the CNF with κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (CO) for drug delivery. In addition, this study is focused on the antimicrobial activity of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF towards periodontal pathogens.
Materials and Methods: A chemo-mechanical method was used to extract the CNF and the modification was done by using CO. The studies were further proceeded by adding different quantities of surfactin [50 mg (50 SNPs), 100 mg (100 SNPs), 200 mg (200 SNPs)] into the carrier (CO-CNF). The obtained materials were characterized, and the antimicrobial activity of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF was evaluated.
Results: The obtained average size of CNF and CO-CNF after ultrasonication was 263 nm and 330 nm, respectively. Microscopic studies suggested that the CNF has a short diameter with long length and CO became cross-linked to form as beads within the CNF network. The addition of CO improved the degradation temperature, crystallinity, and swelling property of CNF. The material has a controlled drug release, and the entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of the drug were 53.15 ± 2.36% and 36.72 ± 1.24%, respectively. It has antioxidant activity and inhibited the growth of periodontal pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis by preventing the biofilm formation, reducing the metabolic activity, and promoting the oxidative stress.
Conclusion: The study showed the successful extraction of CNF and modification with CO improved the physical parameters of the CNF. In addition, surfactin-loaded CO-CNF has potential antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens. The obtained biomaterial is economically valuable and has great potential for biomedical applications.
Keywords: periodontitis, cellulose nanofibers, κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides, drug delivery, antimicrobial activity