Skeletal myotube formation enhanced by electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotube scaffolds
Sirinrath Sirivisoot, Benjamin S Harrison
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Background: This study examined the effects of electrically conductive materials made from electrospun single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polyurethane to promote myoblast differentiation into myotubes in the presence and absence of electrical stimulation.
Methods and results: After electrical stimulation, the number of multinucleated myotubes on the electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotube scaffolds was significantly larger than that on nonconductive electrospun polyurethane scaffolds (5% and 10% w/v polyurethane). In the absence of electrical stimulation, myoblasts also differentiated on the electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotube scaffolds, as evidenced by expression of Myf-5 and myosin heavy chains. The myotube number and length were significantly greater on the electrospun carbon nanotubes with 10% w/v polyurethane than on those with 5% w/v polyurethane. The results suggest that, in the absence of electrical stimulation, skeletal myotube formation is dependent on the morphology of the electrospun scaffolds, while with electrical stimulation it is dependent on the electrical conductivity of the scaffolds.
Conclusion: This study indicates that electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotubes can be used to modulate skeletal myotube formation with or without application of electrical stimulation.
Keywords: myoblasts, electrical field, single-walled, multiwalled, carbon nanotubes, nanocomposites, musculoskeletal, tissue engineering