Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in healthy Chinese subjects
Authors Cui Y, Song Y, Wang J, Yu Z, Schuster A, Barrett YC, Frost C
Received 24 July 2013
Accepted for publication 28 September 2013
Published 6 December 2013 Volume 2013:5(1) Pages 177—184
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Yimin Cui,1 Yan Song,2 Jessie Wang,2 Zhigang Yu,2 Alan Schuster,2 Yu Chen Barrett,2 Charles Frost2
1Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA
Background: The pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of apixaban were assessed in healthy Chinese subjects in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-sequence, single- and multiple-dose study.
Subjects and methods: Eighteen subjects 18–45 years of age were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive apixaban or matched placebo. Subjects received a single 10 mg dose of apixaban or placebo on day 1, followed by 10 mg apixaban or placebo twice daily for 6 days (days 4–9). The PK and PD of apixaban were assessed by collecting plasma samples for 72 hours following the dose on day 1 and the morning dose on day 9, and measuring apixaban concentration and anti-Xa activity. Safety was assessed via physical examinations, vital sign measurements, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory evaluations.
Results: PK analysis showed similar characteristics of apixaban after single and multiple doses, including a median time to maximum concentration of ~3 hours, mean elimination half-life of ~11 hours, and renal clearance of ~1.2 L/hour. The accumulation index was 1.7, consistent with twice-daily dosing and the observed elimination half-life. Single-dose data predict multiple-dose PK, therefore apixaban PK are time-independent. The relationship between anti-Xa activity and plasma apixaban concentrations appears to be linear. Apixaban was safe and well tolerated, with no bleeding-related adverse events reported.
Conclusion: Apixaban was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. Apixaban PK and PD were predictable and consistent with findings from previous studies in Asian and non-Asian subjects. The administration of apixaban does not require any dose modification based on race.
Keywords: apixaban, oral anticoagulant, factor Xa inhibitor, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics
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