Simvastatin pretreatment ameliorates t-PA–induced hemorrhage transformation and MMP-9/TIMP-1 imbalance in thromboembolic cerebral ischemic rats
Received 29 December 2018
Accepted for publication 1 May 2019
Published 16 July 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 1993—2002
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Jun Chen
Bo Yin,*,1 Dan-Dong Li,*,2,3 Shang-Yu Xu,3 Huan Huang,4 Jian Lin,3 Han-Song Sheng,3 Jun-Hao Fang,3 Jin-Ning Song,2 Ming Zhang1
1Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: The use of thrombolysis with tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is limited by increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and by the increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT). In this study, we investigated the effects of simvastatin pretreatment on t-PA-induced MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) imbalance and HT aggravation in a rat AIS model.
Methods: The rat AIS model was established by autologous blood emboli. Two weeks before surgery, rats were pretreated with simvastatin (60 mg/kg/d), and three hours after surgery, t-PA (10 mg/kg) was administered. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels in the infarcted zone and plasma were evaluated by Western blot analysis and ELISA; the level of HT was quantified by determining the hemoglobin content. RhoA activation was determined to clarify the potential effect.
Results: The results suggested that pretreatment with simvastatin suppressed the increase in t-PA-induced MMP-9 levels and neutralized the elevated MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, but had no effect on TIMP-1 levels. Thrombolysis with t-PA after ischemia improved neurological outcome, but increased intracranial hemorrhage. Moreover, t-PA-induced HT aggravation was reduced by simvastatin pretreatment. In addition, we showed that t-PA-induced activation of RhoA was suppressed by simvastatin, and that t-PA-induced MMP-9/TIMP-1 imbalance and hemorrhage was reduced by Rho kinases (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632.
Conclusion: In this study, we showed that simvastatin pretreatment ameliorated t-PA-induced HT and MMP-9/TIMP-1 imbalance, and demonstrated that the RhoA/ROCK pathway was implicated.
Keywords: simvastatin, acute ischemic stroke, t-PA, MMP-9/TIMP-1, RhoA/ROCK pathway, hemorrhagic transformation
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