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Self-reported adherence and biomarker levels of CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol

Authors Vitolins MZ, Case LD, Rapp SR, Lively MO, Shaw EG, Naughton MJ, Giguere J, Lesser GJ

Received 2 December 2017

Accepted for publication 23 February 2018

Published 24 April 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 637—646

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S158682

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen


Mara Z Vitolins,1 L Douglas Case,1 Stephen R Rapp,2 Mark O Lively,3 Edward G Shaw,4 Michelle J Naughton,5 Jeffrey Giguere,6 Glenn J Lesser7

1Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 6Greenville Community Oncology Research Program of the Carolinas, Greenville, SC, USA; 7Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Purpose: Women with breast cancer were randomized to receive coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plus Vitamin E or placebo in a clinical trial. The objective of this evaluation is to examine the association between participant self-reported adherence to the study supplements and changes in plasma biomarker levels.
Patients and methods: Correlation coefficients quantified the association between changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels and the association between self-reported adherence and changes in biomarkers. Participants were categorized by self-reported adherence; Kruskal–Wallis tests compared changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels between self-reported adherence groups.
Results: Women (N=155) provided baseline and post-treatment biomarkers; 147 completed at least one diary. While changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels were moderately correlated, correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.48, association between self-reported adherence and plasma alpha-tocopherol or CoQ10 levels was weak; correlations ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 at weeks 8, 16, and 24. Some participants with high self-reported adherence actually had decreases in their biomarker levels.
Conclusion: These findings support that self-reported adherence is likely to be overestimated. Biological and other measures of adherence that can better identify true adherence to study pills provided in clinical trials are greatly needed as they may assist in improving the interpretation of findings of future clinical trials.

Keywords: adherence, self-report, blood biomarkers, clinical trial, CoQ10, alpha-tocopherol

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