Selected factors affecting adherence in the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension
Received 11 November 2016
Accepted for publication 11 January 2017
Published 1 March 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 363—371
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Beata Jankowska-Polańska,1 Anna Chudiak,1 Izabella Uchmanowicz,1 Krzysztof Dudek,2 Grzegorz Mazur3
1Department of Clinical Nursing, Wroclaw Medical University, 2Department of Logistics and Transport Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, 3Department and Clinic of Internal and Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
Background: Low adherence to hypertension (HT) management is one of the major contributors to poor blood pressure (BP) control. Approximately 40%–60% of patients with HT do not follow the prescribed treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between selected variables and adherence to hypotensive pharmacological treatment. Besides socioclinical variables, the study focused on the role of illness acceptance.
Participants and methods: The study included 602 patients with HT. Adherence and acceptance of illness were assessed using the following validated instruments: the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS).
Results: The high-adherence group comprised a significantly higher percentage of patients with high illness acceptance scale scores than that of patients with low-to-moderate scores (42.4 vs 31.8%; P=0.008<0.01). The odds ratio (OR) showed that high adherence to pharmacological treatment was >1.5 times as likely to occur in the high acceptance group as in the low-to-moderate acceptance group (OR =1.58, 95% CI 1.14–2.19). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed statistically significant correlations between adherence and sex (men ρ=–0.101; P=0.012), age >45–66 years (ρ=0.098; P=0.015), higher education level (ρ=0.132; P=0.001), grade ESC of HT (ρ=–0.037; P=0.057), receiving one-tablet polytherapy (ρ=0.131; P=0.015), and illness acceptance (ρ=0.090; P=0.024).
Conclusion: Acceptance of illness is correlated with adherence to pharmacological treatment, and consideration should be given to more widespread assessment of illness acceptance in daily practice. Male sex, age >45–66 years, duration of illness grade ESC of HT, and receiving one-tablet polytherapy are significant determinants of adherence to pharmacological treatment in HT.
Keywords: adherence, hypertensive treatment, illness acceptance
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