Securidaca inappendiculata-Derived Xanthones Protected Joints from Degradation in Male Rats with Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Regulating PPAR-γ Signaling
Received 8 December 2020
Accepted for publication 21 January 2021
Published 16 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 395—411
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ning Quan
Jian Zuo,1– 3,* Meng-Qing Tao,1,3,* Xin-Yue Wu,4 Tian-Tian Jiang,1 Opeyemi Joshua Olatunji,5 Jiyang Dong,4 Jun Han,6 Cong-Lan Ji7
1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, 241000, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Non-coding RNA Transformation Research of Anhui Higher Education Institution, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241000, People’s Republic of China; 3Research Center of Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241000, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, People’s Republic of China; 5Faculty of Traditional Thai Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, 90112, Thailand; 6Drug Research and Development Center, School of Pharmacy, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui, People’s Republic of China; 7School of Pharmacy, Anhui College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Jun Han
Drug Research and Development Center, School of Pharmacy, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
School of Pharmacy, Anhui College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Background: The bark of Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk. is traditionally used for treating inflammatory diseases and bone fractures in China. We have previously validated the xanthone-enriched fraction (XRF) of S. inappendiculata with anti-rheumatic potentials, but mechanism underlying the joints protective effects is still largely unknown.
Materials and Methods: The male rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were treated with XRF. The therapeutic efficacy of XRF was evaluated by arthritis score changes, morphological observation of paws, histological examinations and serological analyses. Protein expression in tissues and cells was investigated by either immunohistochemical or immunoblotting methods, while levels of mRNA expression were investigated by RT-qPCR. Metabolites in serum were detected by LC-MS approach. The joints homogenates were used for analyzing possible targeted genes by genome microarray analyses.
Results: Treatment with XRF and methotrexate (MTX) led to significant decrease in arthritis scores, and alleviated deformation of paws in CIA rats. In addition, XRF and MTX reduced circulating TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17α in the serum and down-regulated TLR4/NF-κB and JNK pathways in joints of CIA rats. Compared to MTX, XRF-loading microemulsion significantly protected joints, which was accompanied by dramatic decrease in MMP3. Differential genes-based KEGG enrichment and metabolomics analysis suggested that XRF reduced fatty acids biosynthesis by regulating PPAR-γ signaling. S inappendiculata-derived 1,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone (XAN) up-regulated PPAR-γ expression in macrophages, but suppressed it in pre-adipocytes in vitro, which was synchronized with SIRT1 changes. Adiponectin production and SCD-1 expression in pre-adipocytes were also decreased. Aside the direct inhibition on MMP3 expression in synovioblast, the presence of XAN in macrophages-pre-adipocytes co-culture system further reinforced this effect.
Conclusion: This study revealed the joint protective advantages of the bioactive fraction from S. inappendiculata in CIA rats over MTX, and demonstrated that S. inappendiculata-derived xanthones suppressed the erosive nature of synovioblast acquired under inflammatory circumstances by regulating PPAR-γ signaling-controlled metabolism-immunity feedback.
Keywords: peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-γ, energy metabolism, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolomics, macrophage, inflammation
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