Safety of high-dose daptomycin in patients with severe renal impairment
Received 12 December 2017
Accepted for publication 22 February 2018
Published 13 March 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 493—499
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Deyun Wang
Chih-Hsun Tai,1 Chi-Hao Shao,2 Chen-You Chen,2 Shu-Wen Lin,1–3 Chien-Chih Wu1,2
1Department of Pharmacy, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Graduate Institute of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Background: Treatment options are limited for infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with concentration-dependent killing characteristic and dose-dependent post-antibiotic effect. To achieve optimized pharmacodynamic effect, some experts advocated using a high dose of daptomycin (≥9 mg/kg) for severe infections. However, the safety of high-dose therapy in patients with renal impairment remains unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate the safety of daptomycin in patients with severe renal impairment.
Methods: This was a retrospective study performed by reviewing electronic medical records. Patients with severe renal impairment who were treated with daptomycin in a tertiary teaching hospital between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2016, were included for evaluation. The incidence rates of creatine kinase (CK) elevation between high-dose (≥9 mg/kg) and standard-dose (<9 mg/kg) groups were compared.
Results: Overall, 164 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 114 (69.5%) of them were on renal replacement therapy. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were the most common pathogens (61.3%) of the patients with documented pathogens. The treatment success rate was 51.6% in the 91 patients with bacteremia. The average dose of daptomycin was 8.0±2.3 mg/kg, and 37 (22.6%) patients received ≥9 mg/kg. CK levels were followed in 108 (65.9%) patients. Significantly higher incidence of CK elevation was found in the high-dose group compared with that in the standard-dose group (10.8% vs 1.6%, P<0.05). Moreover, patients with elevated CK received a higher dose of daptomycin than those without (9.3±1.2 vs 7.9±2.3 mg/kg, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of CK elevation between patients treated with different dosing frequency or with the concurrent use of statins, fibrate, or colchicine.
Conclusions: In patients with severe renal impairment, high-dose (≥9 mg/kg) daptomycin therapy may result in a significantly higher incidence of CK elevation. More frequent CK monitoring is warranted to avoid potential harm in this population.
Keywords: daptomycin, safety, renal impairment, rhabdomyolysis
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