Back to Journals » Research and Reports in Urology » Volume 4

Role of biochemical markers in testicular cancer: diagnosis, staging, and surveillance

Authors Milose J, Filson C, Weizer A, Khaled Hafez, Montgomery J

Published 30 December 2011 Volume 2012:4 Pages 1—8


Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Jaclyn C Milose, Christopher P Filson, Alon Z Weizer, Khaled S Hafez, Jeffrey S Montgomery
Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Abstract: Testis cancer is one of the few solid organ malignancies for which reliable serum tumor markers are available to help guide disease management. Human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha fetoprotein, and lactate dehydrogenase play crucial roles in diagnosis, staging, prognosis, monitoring treatment response, and surveillance of seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Herein we discuss the clinical applications of germ cell tumor markers, the limitations of these markers in the management of this disease, and additional serum molecules that have been identified with potential roles as novel germ cell tumor markers.

Keywords: testicular cancer, tumor markers, bhCG, AFP, surveillance, diagnosis

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]