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Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis

Authors Theanponkrang S, Suginta W, Weingart H, Winterhalter M, Schulte A

Received 1 October 2014

Accepted for publication 1 November 2014

Published 27 January 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 859—868

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S75237

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Somjai Theanponkrang,1,2 Wipa Suginta,2,3 Helge Weingart,4 Mathias Winterhalter,4 Albert Schulte1,2

1School of Chemistry, 2Biochemistry–Electrochemistry Research Unit, Institute of Science, 3School of Biochemistry, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 4Life Sciences, School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany

Abstract: A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX), two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and accomplished were linear ranges of 1–10 µM and 2–100 µM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 µM (n=7) for NFX and 1.6±0.1 µM (n=7) for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories.

Keywords: antibiotics, electroanalysis, automation, microtiter plates, pharmaceutical screening, pharmacoanalytics

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