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Risk factors associated with postoperative pain after ophthalmic surgery: a prospective study

Authors Lesin M, Dzaja Lozo M, Duplancic-Sundov Z, Dzaja I, Davidovic N, Banozic A, Puljak L

Received 24 September 2015

Accepted for publication 17 November 2015

Published 22 January 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 93—102

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S97024

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Hoa Le

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh

Mladen Lesin,1,* Mirna Dzaja Lozo,1,* Zeljka Duplancic-Sundov,1 Ivana Dzaja,1 Nikolina Davidovic,2 Adriana Banozic,3 Livia Puljak3

1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, 3Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Risk factors associated with postoperative pain intensity and duration, as well as consumption of analgesics after ophthalmic surgery are poorly understood.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted among adults (N=226) who underwent eye surgery at the University Hospital Split, Croatia. A day before the surgery, the patients filled out questionnaires assessing personality, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, sociodemographics were given and details about the procedure, anesthesia, and analgesia for each postoperative day. All scales were previously used for the Croatian population. The intensity of pain was measured using a numerical rating scale from 0 to 10, where 0 was no pain and 10 was the worst imaginable pain. The intensity of pain was measured before the surgery and then 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery, and then once a day until discharge from the hospital. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
Results:
A multivariate analysis indicated that independent predictors of average pain intensity after the surgery were: absence of premedication before surgery, surgery in general anesthesia, higher pain intensity before surgery and pain catastrophizing level. Independent predictors of postoperative pain duration were intensity of pain before surgery, type of anesthesia, and self-assessment of health. Independent predictors of pain intensity ≥5 during the first 6 hours after the procedure were the type of procedure, self-assessment of health, premedication, and the level of pain catastrophizing.
Conclusion: Awareness about independent predictors associated with average postoperative pain intensity, postoperative pain duration, and occurrence of intensive pain after surgery may help health workers to improve postoperative pain management in ophthalmic surgery.

Keywords: postoperative pain, factors, personality, psychology, affect, pain catastrophizing, sociodemographics

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