Review of eprodisate for the treatment of renal disease in AA amyloidosis
Adam Rumjon1, Thomas Coats1, Muhammad M Javaid2
1Department of Nephrology, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, 2Department of Nephrology, Dartford and Gravesham NHS Trust, Darent Valley Hospital, Dartford, UK
Abstract: Secondary (AA) amyloidosis is a multisystem disorder complicating chronic infections or inflammatory diseases. It is characterized by extracellular deposit of fibrils composed of fragments of serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase reactant protein. The kidney is the most frequent organ involved, manifesting as progressive proteinuria and renal impairment. Attenuation of the level of circulating SAA protein by treating the underlying inflammatory condition remains the primary strategy in treating AA amyloidosis. However, at times, achieving adequate control of protein production can prove difficult. In addition, relapse of renal function often occurs rapidly following any subsequent inflammatory stimulus in patients with existing amyloidosis. Recently there has been an interest in finding other potential strategies targeting amyloid deposits themselves. Eprodisate is a sulfonated molecule with a structure similar to heparan sulfate. It competitively binds to the glycosaminoglycan-binding sites on SAA and inhibits fibril polymerization and amyloid deposition. Recent randomized clinical trial showed that it may slow down progressive renal failure in patients with AA amyloidosis. However confirmatory studies are needed and results of a second Phase III study are eagerly awaited to clarify whether or not eprodisate has a place in treating renal amyloid disease.
Keywords: AA amyloidosis, eprodisate, pathogenesis
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