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Response of human mesenchymal stem cells to intrafibrillar nanohydroxyapatite content and extrafibrillar nanohydroxyapatite in biomimetic chitosan/silk fibroin/nanohydroxyapatite nanofibrous membrane scaffolds

Authors Lai GJ, Shalumon KT, Chen JP

Received 4 September 2014

Accepted for publication 16 October 2014

Published 12 January 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 567—584

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S73780

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Guo-Jyun Lai,1,* KT Shalumon,1,* Jyh-Ping Chen1,2

1Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, 2Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Incorporation of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP) within a chitosan (CS)/silk fibroin (SF) nanofibrous membrane scaffold (NMS) may provide a favorable microenvironment that more closely mimics the natural bone tissue physiology and facilitates enhanced osteogensis of the implanted cell population. In this study, we prepared pristine CS/SF NMS, composite CS/SF/nHAP NMS containing intrafibrillar nHAP by in situ blending of 10% or 30% nHAP before the electrospinning step, and composite CS/SF/nHAP NMS containing extrafibrillar nHAP by depositing 30% nHAP through alternative soaking surface mineralization. We investigated the effect of the incorporation of HAP nanoparticles on the physicochemical properties of pristine and composite NMS. We confirmed the presence of ~30 nm nHAP in the composite nanofibrous membranes by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), either embedded in or exposed on the nanofiber. Nonetheless, the alternative soaking surface mineralization method drastically influenced the mechanical properties of the NMS with 88% and 94% drop in Young’s modulus and ultimate maximum stress. Using in vitro cell culture experiments, we investigated the effects of nHAP content and location on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The proliferation of hMSCs showed no significant difference among pristine and composite NMS. However, the extent of osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was found to be positively correlated with the content of nHAP in the NMS, while its location within the nanofiber played a less significant role. In vivo experiments were carried out with hMSCs seeded in CS/SF/30%nHAP NMS prepared by in situ blending and subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Micro-computed tomography images as well as histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the retrieved hMSCs/NMS construct 1 and 2 months postimplantation indicated that NMS had the potential for bone regeneration and can be suggested as a promising scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: chitosan, silk fibroin, hydroxyapatite, electrospinning, nanofibers, human bone marrow stem cells, bone tissue engineering

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