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Renal targeting potential of a polymeric drug carrier, poly-L-glutamic acid, in normal and diabetic rats

Authors Chai HJ, Kiew LV, Chin Y, Norazit A, Mohd Noor S, Lo YL, Looi CY, Lau YS, Lim TM, Wong WF, Abdullah NA, Abdul Sattar MZ, Johns EJ, Chik Z, Chung LY

Received 24 April 2016

Accepted for publication 7 September 2016

Published 13 January 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 577—591

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S111284

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster


Hann-Juang Chai,1 Lik-Voon Kiew,1 Yunni Chin,1 Anwar Norazit,2 Suzita Mohd Noor,2 Yoke-Lin Lo,3,4 Chung-Yeng Looi,1 Yeh-Siang Lau,1 Tuck-Meng Lim,5 Won-Fen Wong,6 Nor Azizan Abdullah,1 Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar,7 Edward J Johns,8 Zamri Chik,1 Lip-Yong Chung3

1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Biomedical Science, 3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 4School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, 5Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar, 6Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 7School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia; 8Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland

Background and purpose: Poly-L-glutamic acid (PG) has been used widely as a carrier to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutics. This study evaluates PG as a selective renal drug carrier.
Experimental approach: 3H-deoxycytidine-labeled PGs (17 or 41 kDa) and 3H-deoxycytidine were administered intravenously to normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The biodistribution of these compounds was determined over 24 h. Accumulation of PG in normal kidneys was also tracked using 5-(aminoacetamido) fluorescein (fluoresceinyl glycine amide)-labeled PG (PG-AF). To evaluate the potential of PGs in ferrying renal protective anti-oxidative stress compounds, the model drug 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) was conjugated to 41 kDa PG to form PG-AEBSF. PG-AEBSF was then characterized and evaluated for intracellular anti-oxidative stress efficacy (relative to free AEBSF).
Results: In the normal rat kidneys, 17 kDa radiolabeled PG (PG-Tr) presents a 7-fold higher, while 41 kDa PG-Tr shows a 15-fold higher renal accumulation than the free radiolabel after
24 h post injection. The accumulation of PG-AF was primarily found in the renal tubular ­tissues at 2 and 6 h after an intravenous administration. In the diabetic (oxidative stress-induced) kidneys, 41 kDa PG-Tr showed the greatest renal accumulation of 8-fold higher than the free compound 24 h post dose. Meanwhile, the synthesized PG-AEBSF was found to inhibit intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (a reactive oxygen species generator) at an efficiency that is comparable to that of free AEBSF. This indicates the preservation of the anti-oxidative stress properties of AEBSF in the conjugated state.
Conclusion/Implications: The favorable accumulation property of 41 kDa PG in normal and oxidative stress-induced kidneys, along with its capabilities in conserving the pharmacological properties of the conjugated renal protective drugs, supports its role as a potential renal targeting drug carrier.

Keywords: carboxylated polymers, carboxylated polypeptides, carrier, diabetes, renal drug delivery, acute kidney injury, chronic renal failure, end-stage renal failure

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