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Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

Authors Kabaria R, Klaassen Z, Terris M

Received 8 November 2015

Accepted for publication 21 January 2016

Published 7 March 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 45—52

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S75916

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Narender Goel

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal


Reena Kabaria, Zachary Klaassen, Martha K Terris

Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA

Abstract:
This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect.

Keywords:
renal cell carcinoma, risk factors, incidence, smoking, obesity, hypertension

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