Remote magnetic targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles for cardiovascular diagnosis and therapeutic drug delivery: where are we now?
Authors Bietenbeck M, Florian A, Faber C, Sechtem U, Yilmaz A
Received 14 April 2016
Accepted for publication 11 May 2016
Published 15 July 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 3191—3203
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster
Michael Bietenbeck,1 Anca Florian,1 Cornelius Faber,2 Udo Sechtem,3 Ali Yilmaz1
1Department of Cardiology and Angiology, 2Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, 3Division of Cardiology, Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus, Stuttgart, Germany
Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for an accurate assessment of both functional and structural cardiac parameters, and thereby appropriate diagnosis and validation of cardiovascular diseases. The diagnostic yield of cardiovascular MRI examinations is often increased by the use of contrast agents that are almost exclusively based on gadolinium compounds. Another clinically approved contrast medium is composed of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs). These particles may expand the field of contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI as recently shown in clinical studies focusing on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, IONs open up new research opportunities such as remote magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The approach of MDT relies on the coupling of bioactive molecules and magnetic nanoparticles to form an injectable complex. This complex, in turn, can be attracted to and retained at a desired target inside the body with the help of applied magnetic fields. In comparison to common systemic drug applications, MDT techniques promise both higher concentrations at the target site and lower concentrations elsewhere in the body. Moreover, concurrent or subsequent MRI can be used for noninvasive monitoring of drug distribution and successful delivery to the desired organ in vivo. This review does not only illustrate the basic conceptual and biophysical principles of IONs, but also focuses on new research activities and achievements in the cardiovascular field, mainly in the management of AMI. Based on the presentation of successful MDT applications in preclinical models of AMI, novel approaches and the translational potential of MDT are discussed.
Keywords: MRI, CMR, magnetic targeting, SPION, myocardial infarction
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