Regulatory Effect of Anwulignan on the Immune Function Through Its Antioxidation and Anti-Apoptosis in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice
Received 6 November 2019
Accepted for publication 1 January 2020
Published 29 January 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 97—110
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Zhi-Ying Wu
Xin Li,1 Jiaqi Gao,1 Zepeng Yu,1 Weihai Jiang,2 Wei Sun,2 Chunyan Yu,1 Jinghui Sun,1 Chunmei Wang,1 Jianguang Chen,1 Shu Jing,2 He Li1
1Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin 132013, People’s Republic of China; 2Affiliated Hospital of Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin 132011, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Shu Jing; He Li Email [email protected]; [email protected]
Background: Aging is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomenon of biology, which can lead to the gradual deterioration of tissues and organs. One of the age-related deterioration processes is immunosenescence, which leads to changes in the function of immune systems, including immune cells and associated cytokines. A proper modulation of immune responses can improve the age-related immunosenescence process and then reach healthy aging. Schisandra sphenanthera, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used as both a medicine and a nutritional supplement for thousands of years. Anwulignan, a monomer compound of Schisandra sphenanthera lignans, has been reported to possess an immunomodulatory effect. Therefore, this study was designed to further explore whether Anwulignan could also modulate the immune functions in aging model mice and the underlying mechanism.
Methods: D-galactose (D-gal) is often used as an inducer of immunosenescence in animals. In this study, a mice model was created by subcutaneous D-gal (220 mg kg− 1) for successive 42 days. Then, the blood and spleen tissue samples were taken for the analysis and observation of cytokine levels, immunoglobulin levels, leukocyte numbers, and the phagocytic activity of macrophages, as well as the histological changes, the proliferation ability of lymphocytes, and the biochemical parameters in the spleen tissue.
Results: Anwulignan significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, lgG, lgM, and lgA, decreased the content of TNF-α and IL-6 in the aging mice, and increased the blood leukocyte number, the phagocytic activity, the lymphocyte proliferation, and the spleen index in vitro. Anwulignan also significantly increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, decreased the contents of MDA and 8-OHdG in the spleen tissue, up-regulated the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and Bcl2, down-regulated the expressions of Keap1, Caspase-3, and Bax in the spleen cells, and reduced the apoptosis of spleen lymphocytes.
Conclusion: Anwulignan can restore the immune function that is declined in D-gal-induced aging mice partly related to its antioxidant capacity by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway and downstream enzymes, as well as its anti-apoptotic effect by regulating Caspase-3 and the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax in the spleen.
Keywords: Anwulignan, immunosenescence, antioxidation, anti-apoptosis
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