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Ravuconazole self-emulsifying delivery system: in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes and in vivo toxicity

Authors Spósito PA, Mazzeti AL, de Oliveira Faria C, Urbina JA, Pound-Lana G, Bahia MT, Mosqueira VF

Received 2 February 2017

Accepted for publication 25 March 2017

Published 17 May 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 3785—3799


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Pollyanna Álvaro Spósito,1 Ana Lia Mazzeti,1,2 Caroline de Oliveira Faria,1 Julio A Urbina,3 Gwenaelle Pound-Lana,1 Maria Terezinha Bahia,2 Vanessa Furtado Mosqueira1

1Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology Research, Pharmacy Department, School of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 2Parasite Diseases Research Laboratory, NUPEB, Medical School, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil; 3Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research, Apartado, Caracas, Venezuela

Abstract: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) are lipid-based anhydrous formulations composed of an isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactants usually presented in gelatin capsules. Ravuconazole (Biopharmaceutics Classification System [BCS] Class II) is a poorly water-soluble drug, and a SEDDS type IIIA was designed to deliver it in a predissolved state, improving dissolution in gastrointestinal fluids. After emulsification, the droplets had mean hydrodynamic diameters <250 nm, zeta potential values in the range of −45 mV to −57 mV, and showed no signs of ravuconazole precipitation. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with dynamic and multiangle laser light scattering was used to characterize these formulations in terms of size distribution and homogeneity. The fractograms obtained at 37°C showed a polydisperse profile for all blank and ravuconazole–SEDDS formulations but no large aggregates. SEDDS increased ravuconazole in vitro dissolution extent and rate (20%) compared to free drug (3%) in 6 h. The in vivo toxicity of blank SEDDS comprising Labrasol® surfactant in different concentrations and preliminary safety tests in repeated-dose oral administration (20 days) showed a dose-dependent Labrasol toxicity in healthy mice. Ravuconazole–SEDDS at low surfactant content (10%, v/v) in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice was safe during the 20-day treatment. The anti-T. cruzi activity of free ravuconazole, ravuconazole–SEDDS and each excipient were evaluated in vitro at equivalent ravuconazole concentrations needed to inhibit 50% or 90% (IC50 and IC90), respectively of the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite in a cardiomyocyte cell line. The results showed a clear improvement of the ravuconazole anti-T. cruzi activity when associated with SEDDS. Based on our results, the repurposing of ravuconazole in SEDDS dosage form is a strategy that deserves further in vivo investigation in preclinical studies for the treatment of human T. cruzi infections.

Keywords: ravuconazole, self-emulsifying drug delivery, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas disease, in vitro activity

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