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Rational design of novel, fluorescent, tagged glutamic acid dendrimers with different terminal groups and in silico analysis of their properties

Authors Martinho N, Silva LC, Florindo HF, Brocchini S, Zloh M, Barata TS

Received 23 February 2017

Accepted for publication 2 June 2017

Published 25 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 7053—7073

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S135475

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Nuno Martinho,1–3 Liana C Silva,1,4 Helena F Florindo,1 Steve Brocchini,2 Mire Zloh,3 Teresa S Barata2

1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, UCL School of Pharmacy, London, 3School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK; 4Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN – Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal

Abstract: Dendrimers are hyperbranched polymers with a multifunctional architecture that can be tailored for the use in various biomedical applications. Peptide dendrimers are particularly relevant for drug delivery applications due to their versatility and safety profile. The overall lack of knowledge of their three-dimensional structure, conformational behavior and structure–activity relationship has slowed down their development. Fluorophores are often conjugated to dendrimers to study their interaction with biomolecules and provide information about their mechanism of action at the molecular level. However, these probes can change dendrimer surface properties and have a direct impact on their interactions with biomolecules and with lipid membranes. In this study, we have used computer-aided molecular design and molecular dynamics simulations to identify optimal topology of a poly(L-glutamic acid) (PG) backbone dendrimer that allows incorporation of fluorophores in the core with minimal availability for undesired interactions. Extensive all-atom molecular dynamic simulations with the CHARMM force field were carried out for different generations of PG dendrimers with the core modified with a fluorophore (nitrobenzoxadiazole and Oregon Green 488) and various surface groups (glutamic acid, lysine and tryptophan). Analysis of structural and topological features of all designed dendrimers provided information about their size, shape, internal distribution and dynamic behavior. We have found that four generations of a PG dendrimer are needed to ensure minimal exposure of a core-conjugated fluorophore to external environment and absence of undesired interactions regardless of the surface terminal groups. Our findings suggest that NBD-PG-G4 can provide a suitable scaffold to be used for biophysical studies of surface-modified dendrimers to provide a deeper understanding of their intermolecular interactions, mechanisms of action and trafficking in a biological system.

Keywords: dendrimers, peptide dendrimers, molecular dynamics, fluorescence, CHARMM, structure-activity, surface properties

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