Protection of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer against excitotoxicity by the N-acylethanolamine, N-linoleoylethanolamine
R. Scott Duncan1,*, Hua Xin1,*, Daryl L Goad1, Kent D Chapman2,3, Peter Koulen1,3
1Vision Research Center and Departments of Ophthalmology and Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA; 3Center for Plant Lipid Research, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
*Authors contributed equally
Abstract: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases and disease processes of the eye, including glaucoma. The protection of RGCs has been an important strategy for combating glaucoma, but little clinical success has been reported to date. One pathophysiological consequence of glaucoma is excessive extracellular glutamate subsequently leading to excitotoxicity in the retina. Endocannabinoids, such as the N-acylethanolamine (NAE), arachidonylethanolamine (NAE 20:4), exhibit neuroprotective properties in some models of neurodegenerative disease. The majority of NAEs, however, are not cannabinoids, and their physiological function is not clear. Here, we determined whether the noncannabinoid NAE, linoleoylethanolamine (NAE18:2), protects neurons in the RGC layer against glutamate excitotoxicity in ex-vivo retina cultures. Using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP (2´-deoxyuridine 5´-triphosphate) nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, we determined that NAE18:2 reduces the number of apoptotic RGC layer neurons in response to glutamate and conclude that NAE18:2 is a neuroprotective compound with potential for treating glaucomatous retinopathy.
Keywords: neuroprotection, glutamate, calcium signaling, immunocytochemistry, eye, vision, glaucoma.
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