Prospective investigation of change in the prostate-specific antigens after various urologic procedures
Received 13 March 2015
Accepted for publication 1 May 2015
Published 29 July 2015 Volume 2015:10 Pages 1213—1218
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Seung Chol Park,1 Yu Seob Shin,2 Li Tao Zhang,2 Dal Sik Kim,3 Sung Zoo Kim,4 Nam Cheol Park,5 Tai Young Ahn,6 Je Jong Kim,7 Sung Won Lee,8 Insuk So,9 Jong Kwan Park2,10,11
1Department of Urology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine and Hospital, Iksan, South Korea; 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, 4Department of Physiology, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 5Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 6Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Ulsan University, Seoul, 7Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 8Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, College of Medicine, SungKyunkwan University, Seoul, 9Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, 10Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University, 11Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, South Korea
Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various urologic procedures in prostatic area on serum free and total PSA levels.
Subjects and methods: A series of 62 patients (8 after digital rectal examination [DRE], 12 after transrectal ultrasonography [TRUS], 11 after rigid cystoscopy, 13 after prostatic massage, 8 after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, and 10 after transurethral resection of prostate [TURP]) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were taken from each patient before procedure and at 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after procedures.
Results: Prostate massage, rigid cystoscopy, TURP, and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy caused statistically significant rise in total and free PSA levels in the serum. There was no significant increase in total and free PSA levels in the serum after DRE and TRUS. The mean differences were greater for free PSA level in the serum for TURP, TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, prostate massage, and rigid cystoscopy.
Conclusion: Total and free PSA levels in the serum are altered by prostate massage, rigid cystoscopy, TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, and TURP. The PSA rises were related to the stimulation strength of the procedures. The total and free PSA levels were increased significantly from 10 minutes after procedures, except DRE and TRUS, and were increased to maximal level at 60 minutes after procedures.
Keywords: prostate specific antigen (PSA), marker, diagnosis, prostate cancer, urologic procedures
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