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Prevalence of presbyopia and spectacle correction coverage in a rural population of North West Nigeria

Authors Umar M, Muhammad N, Alhassan M

Received 19 January 2015

Accepted for publication 25 March 2015

Published 30 June 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 1195—1201

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S81194

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Murtala Muhammad Umar,1 Nasiru Muhammad,2 Mahmoud B Alhassan3

1Zamfara State Eye Care Programme, King Fahad IBN Abdul-Azeez Women and Children Hospital, Zamfara State, Nigeria; 2Ophthalmology Unit, Surgery Department, College of Health Sciences Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Vitreoretina, National Eye Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of presbyopia, and near vision spectacle coverage in a rural population of Northwestern Nigeria.
Study design: Cross sectional prevalence study.
Subjects and methods: Six hundred and fifty people of at least 40 years of age, in 13 clusters (50 per cluster) were examined using a multi-stage random sampling with probability proportional to size. The survey was conducted from April 7 to 28, 2012 at Bungudu Local Government Area of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Presbyopia was defined as the inability to read N8 at 40 cm. Presbyopic Spectacle Correction Coverage (PSCC) was calculated, and information on barriers to using near vision spectacles identified.
Results: The crude prevalence of presbyopia was 30.4%, 95% CI: (26.8%–34.1%). The prevalence was significantly higher in females (P=0.0005) and individuals with at least secondary education (P=0.022). The age specific prevalence of presbyopia was three times (63.5%) more among those aged 70 years and above, as compared to those within 40–49 years age group (19.3%). The met need was 0.2%, the unmet need 30.2%, and a PSCC of 0.7%. The major barriers reported as reasons for not obtaining near vision spectacles were unawareness and lack of felt need.
Conclusion: The prevalence of presbyopia in Bungudu is relatively low compared to other reports with major risk factors being increasing age, female sex and attainment of higher education. The presbyopic spectacles correction coverage is very low with high unmet need thus there is a need to create awareness, and provide affordable and accessible optical services in the affected population.

Keywords: presbyopia, spectacle coverage, Nigeria

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