Prevalence of CMV infection among sexually active adolescents: a matched case-control study
Michael K Foxworth II, Isca R Wilms, Richard R Brookman, Stephanie Crewe, Stuart P Adler
Department of Pediatrics and Microbiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Background: We observed previously that African American adolescents in Richmond reporting infrequent sexual activity had cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence rates one half that of their adult mothers and caregivers. We therefore sought to determine if sexually active African American adolescents have higher rates of CMV infection than sexually inactive African American adolescents.
Methods: Cases (aged 13–18 years) sought care for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or pregnancy. Controls were sexually inactive and matched to cases for age, race, and gender and enrolled at the same clinic as cases and sought medical treatment unrelated to an STI. Subjects completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and were interviewed for determination of sexual activity.
Results: Two groups of sexually active cases were enrolled. The first group had a diagnosis of an STI. In this group, both cases and matched controls were seropositive at a rate of 32% (7/22 for cases and 7/22 for controls). In the second group, cases self-reported an STI but objective evidence was lacking. In this group, cases were seropositive at a rate of 38% (six of 16) compared with matched controls among whom 6.3% were seropositive (one in 16). The overall rate of seropositivity in all 38 cases was 34% compared with a rate of 21% for all controls (P=0.3, odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 0.6–7.5).
Conclusion: Our results confirm lower rates of CMV infection among the current generation of African American adolescents compared with African American adults in Richmond, and suggest that this is not associated with sexual activity.
Keywords: cytomegalovirus, sexually transmitted disease, adolescents, African Americans, seroprevalence
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