Prevalence and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Eight or More Antenatal Care Contacts in Ghana: Findings from 2019 Population-Based Data
Received 15 February 2021
Accepted for publication 14 March 2021
Published 23 March 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 349—360
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Everett Magann
Michael Ekholuenetale,1 Chimezie Igwegbe Nzoputam,2 Amadou Barrow3
1Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health, Center of Excellence in Reproductive Health Innovation (CERHI), College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 3Department of Public & Environmental Health, School of Medicine & Allied Health Sciences, University of the Gambia, Kanifing, The Gambia
Correspondence: Amadou Barrow Email [email protected]
Background: For the prevention of complications and death during pregnancy, adequate antenatal care (ANC) contacts are important. To achieve optimal obstetric care, the latest ANC guidance recommends eight or more ANC contacts. The aim of this analysis is to investigate the prevalence and socio-economic differences of eight or more Ghanaian ANC contacts.
Methods: A total sample of 1404 women of reproductive age who had given birth after eight or more ANC contacts had been initiated, taking into account 9 months of gestation, was studied. The Ghana Malaria Indicator Survey of 2019 (GMIS) was used. In the univariate analysis, percentage was used. The curve and concentration index of Lorenz were used to assess socio-economic disparities for eight or more ANC contacts. Statistical signiﬁcance was set at 5%.
Results: The weighted prevalence of eight or more ANC contacts was 41.9% (95% CI: 37.9– 45.9%). The prevalence of eight or more ANC contacts among the poorest, poorer, middle, richer and richest households was 34.0%, 36.1%, 35.8%, 42.4% and 59.6%, respectively. Similarly, 33.0%, 37.7% and 42.6% prevalence of eight or more ANC contacts were estimated among women with no formal education, primary, secondary or higher, respectively. In addition, women from rich household had greater coverage of eight or more ANC contacts (Conc. Index= 0.089; SE= 0.019) and educated women had greater coverage of eight or more ANC contacts in Ghana (Conc. Index= 0.053; SE= 0.017) (all p< 0.001).
Conclusion: Eight or more ANC contacts from the WHO in 2016 have yet to be fully institutionalized in Ghana. In order to increase access to the recommended prenatal care and for a healthy pregnancy experience, measures that resolve disparities in healthcare usage need to be prioritized for the country. Efforts should be made to expand the health insurance services available, as well as to enact policies that will increase free health care particularly among the poor and uneducated women.
Keywords: inequality, WHO, maternal health, women, 2016 ANC guideline
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